Google’s John Mueller explains that URLs are in uppercase or lowercase.
Just as URLs with backslashes and URLs without backslashes are different, case variations can vary from URL to URL.
This topic is covered in the latest Ask Googlebot episode on the Google Search Central YouTube channel.
A question will be sent asking if the location of the website can be affected by the characters in the URL.
Mueller answers the question and also explains how Google chooses the version of the URL to display in search results.
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The characters in the URL are absolutely important to Google.
Two URLs look the same and can lead to the same content, but if one is in uppercase and the other is not, they can be considered different URLs.
If Google finds that there are multiple versions of the same URL, it will try to crawl all of them to determine which version to display in the search results.
Mueller handles it automatically, but it’s not always ideal because it can take a long time to discover and index content.
When Google finds different versions of the URL, it starts a process called canonicalization.
Determine the URL to keep in SERP and consolidate all signals from other versions into a single URL.
The URL that will eventually appear in the search results is called the canonical URL.
The characters in the URL can also play a role in robots.txt, Mueller explains.
By consistently linking to the same version, you can tell Google which version of the URL you want to see in the results.
The rel = “canonical” tag also sends Google a suggestion about the version of the URL to display in the SERP.
Source: Are URLS case sensitive? #AskGooglebot